The ELVA railway technical facility helps to develop algorithms with which to minimize the negative impact of rail service delays.
For more information, please refer to the latest issue of "RWTH insight. Research at the Miniature Scale. Getting started and getting ahead: The third Futures Day at RWTH provided women students and doctoral researchers with the opportunity to talk to company representatives and ask career-related questions.
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However, the results of the study in the magazine science advances also show that a stringent climate policy could prevent the worst consequences for animals and humans. There are some types of fish that prefer extremely cool water — and can only spawn in cold water. The Atlantic cod, a well-known and favourite food fish, is one of them.
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Even better adapted to the cold is the polar cod, which overwinters in the Arctic in large swarms below the sea ice. The polar cod spawns at water temperatures between 0 and 1. In contrast, the Atlantic cod spawns at 3 to 7 degrees, which, from a human standpoint, is still extremely cold. The AWI researchers Flemming Dahlke and Dr Daniela Storch are convinced that this dependency on cold water could prove fateful for both species; as a result of climate change, especially the waters of the North Atlantic and Arctic will warm considerably unless human beings find a way to massively reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
In addition, there is the problem of acidification: Carbon dioxide bonds with water to form carbonic acid, which acidifies the ocean as it decays. He and project director Dr Daniela Storch, as the first researchers worldwide, have now used painstaking experiments to investigate how a simultaneous acidification and warming would affect the eggs of both species. During this stage, they are especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions, which climate change could realistically produce.
As the experiments clearly show, the situation becomes even worse when the water is acidic: The models predict the extent to which temperatures in various waters will be affected by climate change, and how much they will acidify. In turn, thanks to their experiments the two researchers can now precisely determine in which areas the Atlantic cod and polar cod will no longer be able to spawn in the future.
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It also becomes clear that we could see shifts in fish populations, because the adults will have to search for new spawning areas where their eggs or embryos can still find viable conditions for normal development. In this regard, Dahlke and Storch have chiefly considered three climate scenarios: Working together with climate modeller Martin Butzin from the AWI, they arrived at some interesting conclusions. In the regions around Iceland and Norway, up to 60 percent fewer cod larvae will hatch from their eggs.
Every year, around , tonnes of cod worth 2 billion euros are harvested here. If the waters grow warmer, it will retreat north, not only for the business-as-usual scenario but also under the scenario with moderate warming. Since the polar cod depends on sea ice for its overwintering phase, it remains to be seen how the populations will be affected if the sea-ice extent continues to shrink.